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The concrete produced by combining the fundamental elements cement, water, and aggregate will be of typical strength. The strength of this sort of concrete will range between 10 and 40 MPa. The first setting time of average strength concrete ranges from 30 to 90 minutes, depending on the cement characteristics and the weather conditions at the building site.
There will be no reinforcing in the plain concrete. The primary components are cement, aggregates, and water. The most frequent mix design is 1:2:4, which is the standard mix pattern. The plain concrete density will range between 2200 and 2500 Kg/meter cube. The compressive strength ranges between 200 and 500 kg/cm2. These forms of concrete are mostly utilised in the construction of pavements and structures, particularly in locations where great tensile strength is not required. The durability provided by various types of concrete is quite good.
Reinforced cement concrete is described as concrete that has reinforcement added to it to provide tensile strength. Plain concrete has a low tension and a high compression. As a result, the reinforcement will be responsible for carrying the tensile stresses. R.C.C. operates by combining the action of plain concrete with reinforcement. The steel reinforcement used in concrete might take the shape of rods, bars, or meshes. Fibers are now being produced as reinforcement. Concrete Reinforcement Fiber reinforced concrete is concrete that uses fibres (steel fibres) as reinforcement. The use of meshes in concrete results in ferrocement. Whatever form of reinforcement is used in concrete, good bonding between the concrete and the reinforcement is critical. This bond will be in charge of the concrete’s strength and endurance. Also see: Why Use Reinforced Concrete as a Structure Construction Material?
The majority of large concrete projects are completed using prestressed concrete components. This is a unique approach in which the concrete bars or tendons are strained prior to the actual service load application. These tensioned bars were inserted securely and held from either end of the structural unit during the mixing and placement of the concrete. The structural unit will be compressed once the concrete has been set and hardened. This prestressing phenomenon will strengthen the bottom area of the concrete component against tension. Concrete Prestressed The prestressing procedure will need heavy machinery and labor expertise (jacks and equipment for tensioning). As a result, prestressing equipment are manufactured and built on-site. These are employed in the construction of bridges, heavy-duty constructions, and longer-span roofs.
Various structural pieces can be manufactured and cast at the factory to specifications and delivered to the assembly site. Precast concrete refers to such concrete units. Concrete blocks, staircase units, precast walls and poles, concrete lintels, and many more parts are examples of precast concrete units. These units have the benefit of being quick to build because just assembly is required. Quality is ensured since production is done on-site. The sole safeguard put in place is for their transit. Also see: Precast Concrete Construction – Process and Benefits Concrete Precast
Concrete that is lightweight
Concrete with a density less than 1920kg/m3 is classified as lightweight concrete. Lightweight aggregates will be produced as a result of the usage of lightweight aggregates in concrete
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design. Aggregates are a key component that adds to the density of concrete. Pumice, perlites, and scoria are examples of light weight aggregates. Lightweight concrete is utilised for the protection of steel structures as well as the building of long span bridge decks. These are also utilised in the manufacture of building blocks. Also see: Lightweight Concrete – Types, Classification, Applications, and Benefits Concrete that is lightweight
Concrete with a high density
Heavyweight concrete is defined as concrete with densities ranging from 3000 to 4000 kg/m3. Heavy weight aggregates are utilised here. As coarse aggregates, crushed rocks are employed. Barytes is the most often used heavy weight aggregate. These aggregates are extensively utilised in the construction of nuclear power reactors and other comparable projects. The hefty weight aggregate will aid the construction in resisting all types of radiation. Also see: Construction Applications of High Density Radiation Shielding Concrete
Concrete with Air Infiltration
These are concrete kinds in which 3 to 6% of the concrete is purposefully entrained with air. The addition of foams or gas-foaming agents to the concrete achieves air entrainment. Resins, alcohols, and fatty acids are examples of air entraining agents. Read More: The Effect of Air Entrained Concrete on Concrete Strength
Ready-Mix Concrete (RMC)
Ready-mix concrete is concrete that has been mixed and soaked at a central mixing facility. A truck-mounted transit mixer transports the mixed concrete to the job site. Once attained, this can be utilised straight without additional treatment. Ready-mix concrete is highly accurate, and specialised concrete may be made with the highest quality based on the specification. A centralised mixing facility will be required for the production of these concrete. These plants will be placed at varying distances from the building site. If the transit time is too lengthy, the concrete will set. Such difficulties of time delay are addressed by the use of retarding agents, which postpone the setting. Read More: Batching, Mixing, Transporting, and Handling of Ready-Mix Concrete Concrete Ready Mix
3d illustration of residential building exterior.
In contrast to conventional concrete, aggregates in polymer concrete are linked using polymer rather than cement. The manufacturing of polymer concrete will aid in the decrease of aggregate void volume. As a result, the amount of polymer required to bind the aggregates will be reduced. As a result, the aggregates are graded and combined to obtain the lowest voids and hence the highest density. There are several types of concrete in this category:
Concrete made with polymer cement
Impregnated in Part
Also see: Polymer Impregnated Concrete – Polymer Applications and Properties in Concrete
Concrete with a high strength
High strength concrete is defined as concrete with a strength more than 40MPa. This improved strength is obtained by lowering the water-cement ratio below 0.35. Read: The Difference Between Normal and High-Strength Concrete Properties The addition of silica fume reduces the calcium hydroxide crystals, which are the main worry product during hydration for the strength qualities. In terms of performance, high strength concrete should perform worse in terms of workability, which is a problem.
Concrete with High Performance
These concretes must meet a specific standard but will not be limited in strength. It should be emphasised that every high strength concrete might be of the high-performance variety. However, not every high-performance concrete (HPC) is of high strength. The following are the standards that adhere to high-performance concrete:
Early strength development
Concrete laying is simple.
Factors of permeability and density
Durability and longevity
Toughness and mechanical qualities for a long period of time
Concerns about the environment
Also See: The Difference Between High Strength and High-Performance Concrete Materials
Self-consolidated concrete is defined as a concrete mix that compacts by its own weight when put. There is no need to give vibration separately for the same. This mixture is more workable. Slump values will range between 650 and 750. Because of its increased workability, this concrete is also known as flowing concrete. Self-consolidating concrete works best in places with heavy reinforcement.
The concrete type used here differs in the manner it is applied to the area to be cast. A nozzle is used to shoot concrete into the frame or prepared structural formwork. Because the shooting is done at a greater air pressure, the placement and compaction processes will take place at the same time. Also Read: What Exactly Is Guniting? Guniting Procedure, Applications, and Benefits
Pervious or permeable concrete is concrete that is engineered to enable water to travel through it. When designed, these forms of concrete will include 15 to 20% voids in the volume of the concrete. Pervious concrete is generated by a specific mixing process, performance, application methods, and so forth. These are utilised in the building of pavements and driveways when there is a problem with storm water. Storm water will be channelled through these pervious concrete pavements and into the groundwater. As a result, the majority of the drainage difficulties have been resolved.
Concrete having a higher water content than necessary is poured into the formwork. Without waiting for the concrete to cure, the surplus water is evacuated with the aid of a vacuum pump. As a result, as compared to traditional building methods, the concrete structure or platform will be available for usage sooner. These concretes will reach their 28-day compressive strength in 10 days, and the crushing strength of these structures is 25% higher than that of traditional concrete kinds. Read also: Vacuum Concrete: Techniques, Equipment, and Benefits
The conveyance of the concrete to heights is one of the primary properties of the concrete utilised in massive mega building, particularly high-rise construction. As a result, the ability of concrete to be readily pumped will result in the design of pumpable concrete. The concrete used for pumping must be sufficiently workable to be easily carried through the pipe. The pipe will be stiff or flexible, and it will discharge the concrete to the desired location. The concrete used must be fluid in character, with sufficient fine particles and water to fill the spaces. The finer the material utilised, the better the control over the composition. The coarse aggregate used must be graded in a continuous manner. Also See: What Exactly Is Pumped Concrete? Concrete Pump Types and Selection
Stamped concrete is a type of architectural concrete in which realistic designs resembling natural stones, granites, and tiles may be made by imprinting professional stamping pads. Stamping is done on concrete while it is still in its plastic state. Various colouring stains and texture work will eventually result in a finish that is extremely comparable to more expensive real stones. A stamped finish may provide a high aesthetic appeal at a low cost. This is used to build roadways, interior flooring, and patios. Also See: What Exactly Is Stamped Concrete? Stamping Concrete Features, Methods, and Procedures Concrete Stamped
This is a form of concrete in which lime replaces cement. This product is most commonly used in floors, domes, and vaults. Unlike cement, they offer several environmental and health benefits. These goods are renewable and simple to clean.
Asphalt concrete is a composite material composed of aggregates and asphalts that is often used to cover roadways, parking lots, airports, and embankment dam cores. Asphalt concrete is also known as asphalt, blacktop, or pavement in North America and tarmac, bitumen macadam, or rolled asphalt in the United Kingdom and Ireland.
Concrete Roller Compacted
These are concrete slabs that are put and compacted using earth moving equipment such as large rollers. This concrete is mostly used for excavation and filling purposes. These concretes contain less cement and are filled for the space required. These concretes give great density after compaction and eventually cure into a robust monolithic block.
Concrete with Rapid Strength
As the name indicates, these concretes will gain strength within a few hours of being made. As a result, formwork removal is simplified, and the building construction is completed quickly. Because they may be reused after a few hours, they have a wide range of applications in road repairs.
The recycled glass may be utilised in concrete as aggregates. As a result, we have a contemporary concrete, glass concrete. This concrete will improve the concrete’s visual attractiveness.